Published by Springer-Verlag on behalf of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies
European Journal of Biochemistry vol:241 issue:2 pages:338-42
The membrane protein plasma-cell-differentiation antigen 1 (PC-1) has been described as a phosphodiesterase-I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase and as an autophosphorylating protein kinase. It has been suggested, however, that PC-1 is not a real protein kinase and that the autophosphorylated enzyme represents a nucleotidylated derivative, which is formed on Thr238 (murine PC-1) as a catalytic intermediate during ATP hydrolysis [Belli, S.I., Mercuri, F.A., Sali, A.& Goding, J.W. (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 228, 669-676]. We have investigated the proposed multifunctional role of PC-1 and show here that ATP hydrolysis and autophosphorylation represent two distinct catalytic reactions. The enzyme was radiolabeled when various concentrations (1-260 microM) of [alpha-32P]ATP or [alpha-32P]ADP, but not [gamma-32P]ATP, were used as substrates for the formation of the pyrophosphatase catalytic intermediate, especially in the presence of imidazole, which interferes with the hydrolysis of the nucleotidylated enzyme. In contrast, autoradiography revealed autophosphorylation only with [gamma-32P]ATP as the phosphoryl donor, and autophosphorylation has been shown to occur only at ATP concentrations below 5 microM. Autophosphorylation could also be differentiated from nucleotidylation by its higher resistance to alkaline treatment and its more basic pH optimum. An intestinal nucleotide pyrophosphatase with a structurally related catalytic site could not be autophosphorylated, which shows that autophosphorylation is not an intrinsic property of the nucleotide pyrophosphatase reaction. Autophosphorylation of PC-1 was associated with inactivation of its phosphodiesterase-I/nucleotide-pyrophosphatase activity. We propose that autophosphorylation of PC-1 on Thr238 at low ATP concentrations serves as an autoregulatory mechanism that makes Thr238 unavailable for participation in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides when they become scarce.