Microbial Toll-like receptor ligands differentially regulate CXCL10/IP-10 expression in fibroblasts and mononuclear leukocytes in synergy with IFN-gamma and provide a mechanism for enhanced synovial chemokine levels in septic arthritis
European Journal of Immunology vol:33 issue:11 pages:3146-53
The CXC chemokine IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10) activates CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and attracts activated T cells and natural killer cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) produce low but significant amounts of IP-10/CXCL10 protein upon stimulation with double-stranded (ds) RNA, the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand. IFN-gamma is a superior IP-10/CXCL10inducer. The bacterial TLR4 and TLR2 ligands, LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN), inhibit IFN-gamma- or dsRNA-dependent IP-10/CXCL10 production in PBMC, whereas IL-8/CXCL8 production was enhanced. In fibroblasts a different picture emerges with IFN-gamma inducing moderate and dsRNA provoking strong IP-10/CXCL10 production. Furthermore, treatment of fibroblasts with IFN-gamma in combination with bacterial LPS or PGN results in a synergistic production of IP-10/CXCL10 and IL-8/CXCL8. The synergistic induction of IP-10/CXCL10 in fibroblasts is reflected by significantly enhanced IP-10/CXCL10 concentrations in synovial fluids of septic compared to osteoarthritis patients to reach on average higher levels than those of IL-8/CXCL8. These high amounts of IP-10/CXCL10 produced by connective tissue fibroblasts not only attract CXCR3 expressing activated Th1 cells and natural killer cells to sites of infection but may also antagonize the CCR3 dependent attraction of Th2 lymphocytes and exert CXCR3-independent, defensin-like antibacterial activity.