Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:276 issue:6 pages:3911-9
We have compared the primary sequence and enzymatic properties of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases from a cold-tolerant frog Rana sylvatica with those of a closely related cold-intolerant frog, Rana clamitans. Sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from leg muscles of both species contains a major protein ( approximately 100 kDa) that reacts with a monoclonal antibody against sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase type 1 (SERCA1). The apparent molecular mass of R. sylvatica SERCA1 is 115 kDa, whereas that of R. clamitans is 105 kDa. However, the deduced amino acid sequences obtained from cDNAs do not indicate a difference in molecular weight, thus suggesting post-translational protein modification of R. sylvatica SERCA1. Comparison of the temperature dependence of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca(2+) transport indicates that R. sylvatica SERCA1 exhibits significantly lower activation energy below 20 degrees C and an approximately 2-fold greater Ca(2+)-ATPase activity near 0 degrees C. Furthermore, R. sylvatica SERCA1 exhibits simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with ATP and Ca(2+) as opposed to the two-site ATP kinetics and positive cooperativity with Ca(2+) observed for R. clamitans and mammalian SERCA1s. Cooperativity has been linked to protein-protein interaction in SERCA1, and this property may be altered in R. sylvatica SERCA1. Primary sequence comparison shows that R. sylvatica SERCA1 exhibits seven unique amino acid substitutions, three of which are in the ATP binding domain. We also report for the first time the presence of alternative splicing in the frog, resulting in isoforms SERCA1a and SERCA1b. Thus, it appears that the low temperature muscle contractility of R. sylvatica can be explained partially by significant functional and structural differences in SERCA1.