Ca2+ plays an important role in the regulation of smooth-muscle contraction. In this review, we will focus on the various Ca(2+)-transport processes that contribute to the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Mainly the functional aspects will be covered. The smooth-muscle inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and ryanodine receptor will be extensively discussed. Smooth-muscle contraction also depends on extracellular Ca2+ and both voltage- and Ca(2+)-release-activated plasma-membrane Ca2+ channels will be reviewed. We will finally discuss some functional properties of the Ca2+ pumps that remove Ca2+ from the cytoplasm and of the Ca2+ regulation of the nucleus.