Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:280 issue:19 pages:18658-18666
Peroxisomal beta-oxidation is an essential step in bile acid synthesis, since it is required for shortening of C27-bile acid intermediates to produce mature C24-bile acids. D-Bifunctional protein (DBP) is responsible for the second and third step of this beta-oxidation process. However, both patients and mice with a DBP deficiency still produce C24-bile acids, although C27-intermediates accumulate. An alternative pathway for bile acid biosynthesis involving the peroxisomal L-bifunctional protein (LBP) has been proposed. We investigated the role of LBP and DBP in bile acid synthesis by analyzing bile acids in bile, liver, and plasma from LBP, DBP, and LBP:DBP double knock-out mice. Bile acid biosynthesis, estimated by the ratio of C27/C24-bile acids, was more severely affected in double knock-out mice as compared with DBP-/- mice but was normal in LBP-/- mice. Unexpectedly, trihydroxycholestanoyl-CoA oxidase was inactive in double knock-out mice due to a peroxisomal import defect, preventing us from drawing any firm conclusion about the potential role of LBP in an alternative bile acid biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, the immature C27-bile acids in DBP and double knock-out mice remained unconjugated in juvenile mice, whereas they occurred as taurine conjugates after weaning, probably contributing to the minimal weight gain of the mice during the lactation period. This correlated with a marked induction of bile acyl-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase expression and enzyme activity between postnatal days 10 and 21, whereas the bile acyl-CoA synthetases increased gradually with age. The nuclear receptors hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha, farnesoid X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator receptor alpha did not appear to be involved in the up-regulation of the transferase.