Zeitschrift für Kardiologie. vol:80 Suppl 7 pages:65-8
The Ca(2+)-pump ATPases of the plasma membrane and of the endoplasmic reticulum play an important role in controlling the intracellular Ca(2+)-concentration. In this perspective it is not unexpected that these enzymes are modulated by different factors. The activity of the plasmalemmal (Ca2+ +Mg2+)ATPase is modified by the amount of negatively charged phospholipids surrounding the enzyme. Some evidence is presented indicating that in stomach and myometrium smooth muscle agonists inhibit the extrusion of Ca2+ by reducing the negatively charged phospholipids surrounding the plasmalemmal Ca(2+)-pump, while c-GMP dependent protein kinase would activate this Ca(2+)-pump by increasing this amount. The regulation of the Ca(2+)-pump of the endoplasmic reticulum depends on the phosphorylation of phospholamban by cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase. In the second part of this review, the heterogeneity of the intracellular Ca2+ compartments and a possible connection between the intracellular compartment and the extracellular solution are discussed. In addition, some data on the regulation of Ca2+ inside the nucleus are presented.