Extracellular agonists mobilize Ca2+ from SERCA-comprising intracellular Ca2+ stores located in both the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Ca2+ release from both these compartments was studied in HeLa cells stably expressing the luminescent Ca2+ indicator aequorin specifically targeted to these compartments. Changes in lumenal [Ca2+] as detected by the aequorin measurements were correlated with parallel changes in total Ca2+ content of the stores. The latencies and initial rates of Ca2+ release from the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum were quite similar. However, maximal Ca2+ release measured with Golgi-targeted aequorin terminated faster than that from the endoplasmic reticulum. The rate and extent of Ca2+ depletion from both compartments correlated well with the peak amplitude of the cytosolic [Ca2+] rise. Time-course experiments further revealed that the peak of the cytosolic Ca2+ response occurred before the lumenal [Ca2+] reached its lowest level. We conclude that both the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum contribute to the rise in cytosolic [Ca2+] upon agonist stimulation, but the kinetics of the Ca2+ release are different.