European Journal of Operational Research vol:168 issue:2 pages:322-332
Inspired by the ideas of Rogers and Shi [J. Appl. Prob. 32 (1995) 1077], Chalasani et al. [J. Comput. Finance 1(4) (1998) 11] derived accurate lower and upper bounds for the price of a European-style Asian option with continuous averaging over the full lifetime of the option, using a discrete-time binary tree model. In this paper, we consider arithmetic Asian options with discrete sampling and we generalize their method to the case of forward starting Asian options. In this case with daily time steps, the method of Chalasam et al. is still very accurate but the computation can take a very long time on a PC when the number of steps in the binomial tree is high. We derive analytical lower and upper bounds based on the approach of Kaas et al. [Insurance: Math. Econ. 27 (2000) 15 11 for bounds for stop-loss premiums of sums of dependent random variables, and by conditioning on the value of underlying asset at the exercise date. The comonotonic upper bound corresponds to an optimal superhedging strategy. By putting in less information than Chalasani et al. the bounds lose some accuracy but are still very good and they are easily computable and moreover the computation on a PC is fast. We illustrate our results by different numerical experiments and compare with bounds for the Black and Scholes model [J. Pol. Econ. 7 (1973) 637] found in another paper [Bounds for the price of discretely sampled arithmetic Asian options, Working paper, Ghent University, 2002]. We notice that the intervals of Chalasani et al. do not always lie within the Black and Scholes intervals. We have proved that our bounds converge to the corresponding bounds in the Black and Scholes model. Our numerical illustrations also show that the hedging error is small if the Asian option is in the money. If the option is out of the money, the price of the superhedging strategy is not as adequate, but still lower than the straightforward hedge of buying one European option with the same exercise price. (c) 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.