This article introduces the contributions of this special issue on modelling of urban road pricing and its implementation. The issue focuses on the design of urban road pricing schemes, and their spatial and temporal impacts, using quantitative transport (and land use) models. The policy implications of road pricing, including welfare and equity aspects, are studied for Paris, Brussels and Oslo using state of the art planning models. The issue is completed with a study of public acceptability and the upcoming road-pricing trial in Stockholm, and a review paper on the history of thought and future prospects of road pricing. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.