Intramural bronchogenic cysts of the esophagus are uncommon. These benign esophageal tumors result from a wrong cleavage of the primitive gut in the 4 weeks old embryo. Symptoms are often absent or atypical. By roentgenography and esophagoscopy, the diagnosis of benign tumor can be made. Even CT-scan can't give absolute certainty about the exact nature of the lesion. An exploratory thoracotomy, with enucleation of the tumor, is needed in all cases for definite diagnosis and treatment. The cysts are lined by columnar ciliated epithelium of the respiratory type. The presence of hyaline cartilage within the wall of the cyst allows to make the difference for sure between an esophageal cyst of bronchogenic origin and a cyst of enterogenous origin.