Animals, Apoptosis, Bone Marrow Cells, Comet Assay, DNA Damage, Humans, Lymphocytes, Mice, Mutagens, Nanoparticles, Onions, Reactive Oxygen Species, Silver, Tobacco, Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology, Genetics & Heredity, Toxicology, Cytotoxicity, Flow cytometry, Genotoxicity, ROS, Necrosis, COMET ASSAY, ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS, DNA-DAMAGE, TOXICITY, CYTOTOXICITY, EXPOSURE, ECOTOXICOLOGY, EXPRESSION, NANOSILVER, TOXICOLOGY, Oncology & Carcinogenesis
The biocidal effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) has resulted in their incorporation into consumer products. While the population exposed to Ag-np continues to increase with ever new applications, Ag-np remains a controversial research area with regard to their toxicity in biological systems. Here a genotoxic and cytotoxic approach was employed to elucidate the activity of Ag-np in vitro and in vivo. Characterization of Ag-np using scanning electron microscopy revealed a size range of 90-180nm. Cytotoxic potential of Ag-np was evaluated in human lymphocytes via cell viability assay (Trypan blue dye exclusion method, MTT and WST assay). The uptake and incorporation of Ag-np into the lymphocytes was confirmed by flow cytometry. Additionally apoptosis (AnnexinV-FITC-PI staining) and DNA strand breaks (comet assay) in human lymphocytes revealed that Ag-np at concentration 25μg/ml can cause genotoxicity. In vivo experiments on plants (Allium cepa and Nicotiana tabacum) and animal (Swiss albino male mice) showed impairment of nuclear DNA. Induction of oxidative stress was also studied. The DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations raise the concern about the safety associated with applications of the Ag-np. A single ip administration of Ag-np gave a significant (P≤0.05) increase in the frequency of aberrant cells and Tail DNA percent at concentrations 10mg/kg body weight and above. Results of comet assay in A. cepa and N. tabacum demonstrated that the genotoxic effect of Ag-np was more pronounced in root than shoot/leaf of the plants. The present study indicated a good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo experiments. Therefore the biological applications employing Ag-np should be given special attention besides adapting the antimicrobial potential.