Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Cell Biology, Small heat shock proteins, Oligomeric structure, Mutations, Congenital diseases, Protein phosphorylation, Chaperone-like activity, Protein-protein interactions, HEAT-SHOCK-PROTEIN, MARIE-TOOTH-DISEASE, N-TERMINAL DOMAIN, MOTOR NEURONOPATHY, HDAC6 INHIBITORS, AXONAL-TRANSPORT, ALPHA, HSP27, PHOSPHORYLATION, OLIGOMERIZATION, 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is major hereditary neuropathy. CMT has been linked to mutations in a range of proteins, including the small heat shock protein HspB1. Here we review the properties of several HspB1 mutants associated with CMT. In vitro, mutations in the N-terminal domain lead to a formation of larger HspB1 oligomers when compared with the wild-type (WT) protein. These mutants are resistant to phosphorylation-induced dissociation and reveal lower chaperone-like activity than the WT on a range of model substrates. Mutations in the α-crystallin domain lead to the formation of yet larger HspB1 oligomers tending to dissociate at low protein concentration and having variable chaperone-like activity. Mutations in the conservative IPV motif within the C-terminal domain induce the formation of very large oligomers with low chaperone-like activity. Most mutants interact with a partner small heat shock protein, HspB6, in a manner different from that of the WT protein. The link between the altered physico-chemical properties and the pathological CMT phenotype is a subject of discussion. Certain HspB1 mutations appear to have an effect on cytoskeletal elements such as intermediate filaments and/or microtubules, and by this means damage the axonal transport. In addition, mutations of HspB1 can affect the metabolism in astroglia and indirectly modulate the viability of motor neurons. While the mechanisms of pathological mutations in HspB1 are likely to vary greatly across different mutations, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required for a better understanding of the CMT disease at molecular level.