Journal of Colloid and Interface Science

Publication date: 2004-01
Volume: 269 Pages: 109 - 116
ISSN: 0021-9797, 1095-7103
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2003.07.008
Publisher: Elsevier

Author:

Posthumus, W
Magusin, PCMM ; Brokken-Zijp, JCM ; Tinnemans, AHA ; van der Linde, R

Keywords:

grafting nanoparticles, 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, silica, tin oxide, antimony-doped tin oxide, 03 Chemical Sciences, 09 Engineering, 02 Physical Sciences, Chemical Physics

Abstract:

Tin oxide, antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO), and silica nanosized particles in aqueous dispersion were reacted with various amounts of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The kinetics were followed by 29Si NMR and the products were analyzed by FTIR and 29Si NMR. The kinetic experiments on ATO and silica revealed that the hydrolysis is the rate-determining step in these reactions. The reaction of MPS with the particles is favored over the homocondensation of MPS. Quantitative analysis using FTIR revealed that the amount of MPS grafted onto the tin oxide and silica particles is limited to the amount needed to fill one monolayer. For ATO the maximum amount of grafted MPS was only 50–70% of the amount that is needed for a closed monolayer. The MPS molecules are for the most part oriented parallel to the oxide surface, and a hydrogen bond between the MPS-carbonyl and the oxide is formed.