techniques: photometric, techniques: polarimetric, stars: circumstellar matter, stars: individual hr 5907, stars: magnetic field, stars: rotation, helium-strong stars, driven stellar winds, controlled circumstellar matter, dynamical simulations, mass-loss, ori-e, line, field, emission, extinction, Science & Technology, Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics, stars: individual HR 5907, HELIUM-STRONG STARS, DRIVEN STELLAR WINDS, CONTROLLED CIRCUMSTELLAR MATTER, DYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS, MASS-LOSS, ORI-E, LINE, FIELD, EMISSION, EXTINCTION, 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences
We report the discovery and analysis of a very strong magnetic field in the rapidly rotating early B-type star HR 5907, based on observations obtained as part of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) project. We infer a rotation period of 0.508 276+0.000 015-0.000 012 d from photometric and Ha EW measurements, making this the shortest period, non-degenerate, magnetic massive star known to date. From the comparison of IUE UV and optical spectroscopy with LTE bruce/kylie models we find a solid-angle integrated, uniform black-body temperature of 17 000 +/- 1000 K, a projected rotational velocity of 290 +/- 10 km s-1, an equatorial radius of 3.1 +/- 0.2 R circle dot, a stellar mass of 5.5 +/- 0.5 M circle dot, and an inclination angle of the rotation axis to our line-of-sight of 70 +/- 10 degrees. Our measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field, which vary between -500 and -2000 G, phase coherently with the rotation period and imply a surface dipole field strength of similar to 15.7 kG. On the other hand, from fits to mean Least-Squares Deconvolved Stokes V line profiles we infer a dipole field strength of similar to 10.4 kG. This disagreement may result from a magnetic configuration more complex than our model, and/or from the non-uniform helium surface abundance distribution. In either case we obtain a magnetic obliquity nearly aligned with the rotation axis (beta=7-1+2 degrees). Our optical spectroscopy also shows weak variability in carbon, silicon and nitrogen lines. The emission variability in hydrogen Balmer and Paschen lines indicates the presence of a dense, highly structured magnetosphere, interpreted as a centrifugally supported, magnetically confined circumstellar disc.