Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems, Cardiovascular System & Cardiology, congenital heart disease, tissue Doppler echocardiography, ventricular function, SYSTEMIC RIGHT VENTRICLE, MYOCARDIAL ACCELERATION, MUSTARD OPERATION, SWITCH OPERATION, ANIMAL-MODEL, TRANSPOSITION, EXERCISE, CONTRACTION, DYSFUNCTION, VESSELS, Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Cardiac Surgical Procedures, Case-Control Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Echocardiography, Doppler, Echocardiography, Doppler, Color, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Heart Atria, Humans, Male, Myocardial Contraction, Reference Values, Reproducibility of Results, Risk Assessment, Sex Factors, Stroke Volume, Time Factors, Transposition of Great Vessels, Treatment Outcome, Young Adult, Cardiovascular System & Hematology, 1102 Cardiorespiratory Medicine and Haematology
BACKGROUND: Ventricular dysfunction represents one of the major problems in the long-term follow-up of patients after atrial repair for dextrotransposition of the great arteries. We aimed to study the role of tissue Doppler derived isovolumic acceleration (IVA) to detect early myocardial dysfunction in these patients. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with dextrotransposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) that underwent atrial repair (Senning procedure: n = 12; Mustard procedure: n = 12) in infancy were examined at the age of 21 [12-33] years (median [range]) using tissue Doppler analysis of IVA and peak systolic myocardial velocity at rest and during exercise. 12 age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. RESULTS: At rest, IVA and peak systolic myocardial velocity were reduced in the systemic ventricle (SV) of patients. IVA correlated with peak systolic myocardial velocity (r = 0.76, P < / 0.001). During exercise, IVA, but not peak systolic myocardial velocity, increased significantly in the SV of patients (rest: 1.03 +/- 0.44 cm/sec(2); 1 W/kg: 1.80 +/- 1.22 cm/sec(2); 2 W/kg: 2.85 +/- 1.26 cm/sec(2)). In the subpulmonary ventricle, IVA was significantly lower in patients compared to the controls (patients: 1.45 +/- 0.49 cm/sec(2) vs. controls: 2.31 +/- 0.43 cm/sec(2), P < / 0.05). IVA but not peak systolic myocardial velocity was able to discriminate between patients and healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: IVA is superior to peak systolic myocardial velocity to assess a reduction in functional reserve of both ventricles in patients after atrial repair for D-TGA.